Archive for the ‘kashmir’ Category

Kashmir – 1948 to 1966

March 15, 2008

Kashmir – Beginning of the conflict
Sheikh Abdullah became the Prime Minister of Kashmir on March 5, 1948. The government of Pakistan did not recognize his leadership. Kashmir was given a temporary status under the article 370 of the Indian constitution. Article 370 specified that the provisions of this article and article 1 (name and territory of the union) shall apply to the state. The Central government needed the State government’s approval except for Defense, Foreign Affairs and Communications. Kashmir was to have its with its own flag, emblem, constitution and Sadr-i-Riyasat (Prime Minister). The Article in brief gave partial autonomy to the state. Later in 1964, Article 356 (imposition of President’s rule), the control of Supreme Court and the Election Commission were extended to the state. Article 370 has been hotly debated in India. Some Indian commentators claim that this article gave a permanency to the temporary status to Kashmir and have called for the abrogation of the article.

Sheikh Abdullah, a populist ran his party (National Conference) with authoritarian ways. No opposition was allowed in the state. The Indian government did not care as long as Sheikh did not question the accession. In August 1953, Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was dismissed and arrested, and Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed became Prime Minister of the State and also President of the National Conference by majority vote of the State Cabinet. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed proved to be a great administrator and is remembered as the “Architect of Modern Kashmir” because of his work in the State. But he is also known for suppressing any political dissent and engaging in electoral malpractices. But Sheikh Abdullah was still popular. In 1950, Sheikh Abdullah passed two legislations (The abolition of big estates and the Distressed Debtors Relief act) aimed at improving the plight of poor people, especially farmers. Under these legislations, all estates greater than twenty-three acres were confiscated and either distributed to landless peasants or converted into state property.

1962 Sino-India War

The cause of the conflict between India and China were disputed territories of Aksai Chin (about 20 percent of the whole of Kashmir) in the northeastern section of Ladakh District in Jammu and Kashmir, and North-eastern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Also, perceived Indian efforts to undermine Chinese control of Tibet is said to be the cause of the 1962 war. In the fight over these areas, the well-trained and well-armed troops of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army overpowered the ill-equipped Indian troops, who had not been properly acclimatized to fighting at high altitudes. Meantime, India had requested the United States for armed help, marking a departure from Nehru’s policy of non-alignment. The Soviets were preoccupied by the Cuban Missile Crisis and hence did not support India. The Chinese did not advance farther and on November 21 declared a unilateral cease-fire. They had accomplished all of their territorial objectives, and any attempt to press farther into the plains of Assam would have stretched their logistical capabilities and their lines of communication to a breaking point. The PRC withdrew from virtually all of Arunachal Pradesh to the Line of Actual Control (LAC), which approximates the McMahon Line that is found in a 1914 agreement initialed by British, Tibetan, and Chinese representatives. But, Aksai Chin still remains under the control of Chinese.
China and Pakistan took steps to peacefully negotiate their shared boundaries and in March 1963, Pakistan conceded its northern claim line in Pakistani-controlled Kashmir to China in favor of a more southerly boundary along the Karakoram Range. The Indian Army’s defeat was seen as a national humiliation. Nehru came under harsh criticism, but he refused to abandon the Non Alignment position. However, military expenditures were increased and a plan was drafted for modernization of the Indian army and air-force.

Second Kashmir War 1965

In summer of 1965, Pakistan and Indian army exchanged skirmishes in Rann of Kutch. The skirmishes ended with Pakistan gaining 350 square miles (900 km²) of the Rann of Kutch. Pakistan army wanted to attack India/Kashmir before the modernization was complete for Indian army. The Pakistani army was keen on a new war. It was under the perception that locals would support the revolt in wake of the Hazratbal episode. In August 1965, Pakistani Army launched Operation Gibraltar. Pakistani soldiers entered Jammu and Kashmir and attempted to start a rebellion. But the locals did not respond and the operation was a debacle.
On August 15, 1965, Indian forces crossed the ceasefire line and launched an attack on Pakistan administered Kashmir. Indian forces scored a major victory captured three important mountain positions in the northern sector. Other Indian forces captured a number of strategic mountain positions and eventually took the key Haji Pir Pass, eight kilometers inside Pakistani territory. Pakistani launched a counterattack on September 1 in the southern sector, in Punjab, where Indian forces were caught unprepared and suffered heavy losses. UN Security Council unanimously passed a resolution on September 20 that called for a cease-fire. New Delhi accepted the cease-fire resolution on September 21 and Islamabad on September 22, and the war ended on September 23. A peace agreement, brokered by the Soviets, was signed by the Indians and Pakistanis in Tashkent in January 1966. The agreement stipulated that both sides withdraw positions held prior to 1965.


Kashmir – Beginning of the conflict

March 9, 2008

I was browsing through my childhood photographs and came across a photograph of me on a shikara (house-boat) in Dull Lake, Srinagar, Kashmir. The photograph was clicked on a summer vacation spent in Kashmir more than 20 years ago (1987). The valley was very peaceful then and that peace would be elusive for the next 20 years was beyond imagination. Most Indians say that Pakistan was invaded Kashmir and that Indian troops defended the valley after the instrument of accession had been signed. Pakistanis’ reject the legality of the Instrument of Accession. Moreover, since the state was predominantly Muslim, Pakistanis claim that the state should belong to Pakistan.

Who’s to blame..I do not know. The post is merely an attempt to educate myself on the conflict.

Brief History of the Conflict

India Independence Act (1947)
The Indian Independence act of 1947 was passed at the time of independence from Britain. Under the act, 562 Indian princely states were released from their treaty relationships with the British Empire. The states were advised to join either India or Pakistan. But, Lord Mountbatten, fearing that the princely states’ independence could lead to a civil war, made the accession mandatory. The rulers of the princely states were advised to keep the geographical location of their states and the wishes of the people in mind before making a decision. The accession of three states (Junagarh, Hyderabad and Kashmir) became the sources of conflict between Indian and Pakistan.

Junagarh was predominantly a Hindu state under a Muslim ruler (the Nawab of Junagarh) and surrounded by India from all sides. Fearing that his 800 dogs might be poisoned by the Indian government, the Nawab finally acceded to the Dominion of Pakistan in August 1947. The government of India argued that the accession ran counter to Pakistan’s irredentist policy (division of the country along religious lines). The Indian government sent in their troops and conducted a plebiscite. The population voted overwhelmingly to join the dominion of India and Junagarh thus became part of India.

Hyderabad: The Nizam of Hyderabad, whose princely state was the largest in India, wanted to remain independent. The law and order situation started deteriorating and clashes between the Mulsim militia, Razakar army, fighting for continuation of the Nizam’s rule and the communists of Telangana, fighting for joining in the Indian Union became more and more common. After more than a year of negotiations, the Indians invaded Hyderabad in September 1948 and defeated the Nizam’s troops. The massive support for Indian troops made the plebiscite unnecessary and Hyderabad was thus incorporated into India.

Kashmir: Unlike Hyderabad and Junagarh, Kashmir had a Hindu ruler and a largely Muslim population. Also, Kashmir was in unique geographical location, bordering both India and Pakistan. The ruler of Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh, like his Hyderabad counterpart, was dreaming of an independent state. The Muslim population resented Hari Singh. Muslims were taxed and were excluded from the civil and armed services. After crushing a mass uprising in 1931, he gave some concessions and allowed a limited democracy. Even after his reforms, he remained widely unpopular. The grievances of the Muslim subjects fomented a rebellion, which was fanned and supported by Pakistan. In October 1947, the state was invaded by tribals from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and regular Pakistani soldiers. The Maharaja requested help from India and the Indian government pledged him total support on the condition of accession to India. The Instrument of Accession was signed on 26 October 1947 and the government of India sent troops into Kashmir the next day. The legality of accession is still widely disputed. Pakistan disputes that due to poor flying conditions, V P Menon was unable to get to Jammu until the morning of 27 October , by which time Indian troops were already arriving in Srinagar. Pakistanis also argue that Hari Singh had fled the state and was hence not the ruler of the state.

Despite early successes, the Indian army suffered a setback in December due to cold weather and logistical problems. In the spring of 1948, the Indian side mounted another offensive to retake some of the ground that it had lost and more of Pakistani army became active. Around November 1948, Nehru on the advise of Lord Mountbatten decided to ask UN to intervene. A UN cease-fire was arranged for the 31 December 1948. A cease-fire was agreed to by both countries, which came into effect, the terms of which were laid out in the United Nations Commission on India and Pakistan (UNCIP) resolution. The resolution required Pakistan to withdraw its forces, while allowing India to maintain minimum strength of its forces in the state to preserve law and order. On compliance of these conditions a plebiscite was to be held to determine the future of the territory.

The Plebiscite

Nehru, a Kashmiri Pandit, had reasons to believe that India would win such a plebiscite. Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah, a Muslim who opposed the maharajah’s rule but preferred the secular socialism of Nehru’s. He became Kashmir’s prime minister in 1948, and could surely have swung a plebiscite India’s way. But still Nehru and Patel accepted that Kashmir could accede to Pakistan. The plebiscite never happened. India has argued that a plebiscite cannot be conducted till the Pakistan army withdraws its troops from Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas, both under Pakistan’s control. Pakistan, meanwhile argues that Indian accession is illegal and India must withdraw its troops and a plebiscite be conducted under the aegis of an international body.

Ganguly, Sumit. The Crisis in Kashmir: Portents of War, Hopes of Peace.